Standard Presser Foot
This is the foot I use for most sewing such as straight stitch and zig zag stitch. I like to follow the edge of the foot for a 3/8" seam allowance. The center is clear and I can see through. I can also use some of the other markings for 1/4" seam allowance. The black button on the side is helpful for sewing thick fabrics. Just press the black button before lowering the foot. This way you don't need a Jean A Ma Jig.
There are various types of zipper feet. Here are 2 different kinds. The top one can be snapped on either the right side or the left side, depending on which side of the zipper you are sewing. The bottom pictures show an invisible zipper foot. See the grooves at the bottom? These are for the teeth of the invisible zipper.
This foot will hold in place a button. Set your machine to do a zig zag with no stitch length. The stitch width will depend on the size of your button. Gently move the wheel to see if you have a good width for your button, adjust if necessary.
This foot is often used for quilting. The right side helps guide you for a 1/4" seam allowance. The left side for a 1/8".
Adjustable Blind Hem Foot
This one helps guide your fabric to create a blind hem. You would need to use a blind hem stitch. The fabric is folded and then guided by the adjustable foot.
Rolled Hem Foot
These come in various sizes. Used to make a rolled hem. Best used with straight hems, such as napkins or a straight hem of a skirt. When used for a curved hem, such as a circle skirt, it's a little trickier to work with. Since part of fabric is cut on bias, it can stretch a little, making it harder to be even all around and stay inside the rolled hem foot. It can certainly be done with patience and time, just don't expect to be perfect.
Non Stick Foot
This foot is used for sewing over fabrics like vinyl and oil cloth. Without this foot, these fabrics would stick and it's very hard to sew. But this foot makes things easier.
I hope these pictures can help you identify what presser feet come with your sewing machine and learn a little about what they are for. Or perhaps now you know what presser foot might make a job easier. Comment below. Let us know what feet you have tried or would like to try.